Bharata natyam, (Sanskrit: “Bharata’s dancing”) also previously called Sadhir Attam, is a major form of Indian classical styles of India, the others being kuchipudi, kathak, kathakali, manipuri, and odissi. It is indigenous to the Tamil Nadu region and prevalent in southern India. Bharata natyam serves the expression of Hindu religious themes and devotions, and its techniques and terminology have been traced back to ancient treatises such as the Natya-shastra, by the Brahman sage and priest Bharata. Bharata natyam was originally performed exclusively by female temple dancers and was not brought to the stage for public performance until about 1930.
Bharata natyam, a traditional dance drama of India.
Photo by Mohan Khokar
A performance of bharata natyam usually lasts two hours without interruption and includes a specific list of procedures, all performed by one dancer, who does not leave the stage or change costume. The accompanying orchestra—composed of drums, drone, and singer—occupies the back of the stage, led by the guru, or teacher, of the dancer.
In pure style, bharata natyam is classically clear in technique. The feet beat out complicated counter rhythms; the legs are bent in a characteristic low squat; arms, neck, and shoulders are part of the movement. In the pantomime sections, the hands tell the story through conventional gesture language, while the face expresses the mood. In the pure dance the hands are restricted to 11 mudras (symbolic hand gestures).
Short Reads about Bharata natyam(must read)
- Humiliated for learning Bharata natyam? Read the inspiring story of two sisters
- Bharta natyam in the new India
- Bharata natyam is more than just a traditional Indian dance
- Evolution of Bharatnatyam